Vaccines



Each novel vaccine candidate needs to be evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in humans before it is licensed for use.

Vaccines


Clinical trials provide the safety and efficacy data necessary in the evaluation of marketing authorization applications and are thus the cornerstone for the introduction of new drugs including new vaccines. The global spread of deadly diseases like the COVID-19 and the high burden of diseases around the world have contributed substantially to the global expansion of vaccine clinical trials.

As per the New Drugs and Clinical Trials Rules, 2019, vaccines are considered as “New drugs” and thus follow the same regulatory aspects as chemical drugs for clinical trial conduction. Each novel vaccine candidate needs to be evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in humans before it is licensed for use.

Conducting Vaccine Clinical Trials in India

Clinical trials require regulatory and ethical oversight to ensure the protection of the trial participants as well as to ensure the scientific integrity of the resulting data. In India, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) is responsible for approval of novel vaccines and with this it ensures the safety, efficacy and quality of the marketed vaccines.

Process of Obtaining Clinical trial NOC in India

SUGAM is an online web portal where applicants can apply for No objection certificates (NOCs) to conduct clinical trials.

For any clinical trial, the study sponsor is the responsible person and has all the information. For initiating clinical trials, sponsors needs to submit the application by filling Form CT-04 along with all other necessary documents specified under Second Schedule and fees as specified under Sixth Schedule of CT Rules 2019. The data required will depend upon the type of application, phase of the study, stage in drug development process, and/or objective of the study.

Three Phases of Vaccine Development

A vaccine candidate should go through three phases of development in humans - Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III. After successful completion of Phase III trials and following licensure of the product, Phase IV studies or postmarketing surveillance studies (PMS) are carried out for systematic monitoring of the vaccine for safety and effectiveness in the real world.

Phase I or first-in-man studies refer to the first administration of a vaccine candidate to humans. Phase I are conducted to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity aspects of the vaccines. In some instances, the dose, immunization schedule and mode of vaccine administration are also assessed in this phase.

After a vaccine candidate shows satisfactory results in Phase I, the next step is Phase II studies. The main objective of phase II study is to identify the vaccine preparation, optimal dose, and schedule to be taken up for Phase III trials or confirmatory trials. Phase II studies have the desired statistical power and a defined sample size, and hence are intended to provide a clinically meaningful outcome on the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy end points.

Pivotal Phase III trials are designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of the proposed vaccine. Phase III trials are important for registration and approval to market of a vaccine and are required to confirm the effect of the final formulation. Phase III trials involve large scale testing and enroll thousands of subjects from the target population. Once the vaccine candidate demonstrate optimal efficacy and safety in phase III trials, the manufacturer of the vaccine can submit an application to the national regulatory authority to license and market the product.

The permission to initiate clinical trial is granted in Form CT-06 by the central licensing authority and automatic approval is granted in Form CT 4A. The approval is valid for a period of 2 years from the date of its issue, unless extended by the central licensing authority. Clinical trial shall be initiated by enrolling the first subject within a period of 2 year from the date of grant of permission, failing which the sponsor should get prior permission from CLA before initiating the trial.

Before enrolling the first subject for the trial, clinical trial needs to be registered with the Clinical Trial Registry. Clinical trial can be initiated at the site only after getting approval letter by the registered Ethics Committee.

Cliniexperts can help you in effectively navigating through the various regulations and steps involved in vaccine clinical trials. CliniExperts provide full spectrum services for local and global clinical trial- Phase I Trial,Phase II Trial,Phase III Trialand Phase IV Trial or Post Marketing Studies (PMS) (exclusively in India). Make Cliniexperts your partner to bring novel vaccines to save lives and promote global welfare.

Summary

  • A vaccine candidate should go through three phases of development in humans - Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III.

  • For initiating the clinical trial, the sponsor needs to submit the application by filling Form CT-04. The permission to initiate clinical trial is granted in Form CT-06 by the central licensing authority and automatic approval is granted in Form CT 4A.

  • Before enrolling the first subject for the trial, clinical trial needs to be registered with the Clinical Trial Registry. Clinical trial can be initiated at the site only after getting approval letter by the registered Ethics Committee.

References

  • New Drugs and Clinical Trials Rules, 2019, Ministry of Health & Fam. Welfare, Notification, G.S.R. 227(E), (March 19, 2019).

  • Singh K, Mehta S. The clinical development process for a novel preventive vaccine: An overview. J Postgrad Med. 2016;62(1):4‐11.

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